Агабекян английский язык для технических вузов
Английский для технических вузов Агабекян
frequently — часто support — поддержка necessity — необходимость
flash — вспышка, зд. in a flash — моментально to give smth. a thought — подумать о чемлибо brand-name — торговая марка
calm — спокойный shortcut — кратчайший путь to sacrifice — жертвовать
advancement— прогресс, продвижение
A new Windows shortcuts capability makes it easy to reach frequently used files and other necessities. A new Find feature helps you to locate and examine the contents of files in a flash.
Most of this is accomplished without sacrificing performance. In fact, many things (like printing) usually happen faster now, due to 32-bitsupport and other Windows 95 advancements.
to interact — взаимодействовать
to accomplish — выполнять, достигатьweapon — оружие
to replace — замещать Recycle Bin— корзина
to crash — ломаться, давать сбоиto remove — удалять
co-workers — коллеги, сослуживцыrarely — редко
to plug — подключать
1)What is Windows 95?
2)What new principles are used in Windows 95?
3)What is a Recycle Bin feature?
4)What problems has Windows 95 solved?
5)Is it possible to run old DOS programs under Windows 95?
6)What is a «plug-n-play»capability?
7)What is a «shortcut» capability?
8)What is a «Find» feature?
9)Why many things work faster now with Windows 95?
Exercise 9.4. Which of the listed above statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1)An «icon» is graphical image that represents file and its type.
2)Second button is not used in Windows 95 because most people use 1-buttonmouse.
3)There are no similarities between Macintosh and Windows 95 desktop tools.
4)Windows 95 has some tools which help to communicate with other people through computer network.
5)It's no longer possible to use MS-DOScommands and runMS-DOSfiles.
6)Microsoft corporation is oriented to produce as many programs as needed to meet people needs and make them buy specific brandname products.
7)New plug-n-playcapability is for those who like to play computer games 24 hours a day and seven days a
8)A new shortcut feature is used to cut long programs very short to save disk space.
9)New Find feature helps you to locate the contents of files.
10)It must be mentioned that all new Windows features are possible only because of the low level of performance and quality.
Exercise 9.5. Find the equivalents in the text:
1)Ваш компьютер вероятно будет давать меньше сбоев с Виндоуз 95, чем с более ранними версиями и даже ДОС.
2)Корпорация Майкрософт заявляет, что она делает все для того, чтобы приблизить время, когда мы все будем думать больше о наших данных, чем о конкретных «фирменных» программах, которые используются для создания этих данных.
3)Новая функция поиска позволяет обнаружить местоположение и исследовать содержимое файла
4)Большинство этих функций достигнута в ущерб производительности.
5)ДОС, каким мы его знаем, так хорошо запрятан, что вы редко думаете о его использовании.
6)В Виндоуз 95 существует инструмент Корзина, который позволяет легко восстанавливать случайно удаленные файлы.
7)Инструменты Рабочего Стола очень схож с инструментами Макинтоша.
8)Вторая кнопка мыши стала мощным оружием.
Exercise 9.6. What is:
Exercise 9.7. Practice:
1)Start Windows 95. Empty the Recycle Bin. See the free diskspace on drives A and C. See the catalgue of
2)Resize, maximize and minimize the window. Close the window. Move it, holding the left button.
3)Create a folder COMPUTER. Copy any 2 filesinto it. Rename the folder. Delete two files into the Recycle Bin then recover them. Delete the whole folder.
4)Create a textual file in WordPad program. Save it as TEXT. Rename it as MYFILE. Create a shortcut for it. Put the shortcut on the DeskTOP.
5)Create a picture in Paintbrush program. Save it as MYPICTURE. Create folder PICTURES. Copy file MYPICTURE to the PICTURES folder.
6)QUIT Windows 95.
Questions for group discussion:
1)What are the poor features of Windows 95?
2)Computer society thinks, that Intel company, the most powerful CPU producer, has an agreement with Microsoft corporation that the latter will develop more and more sophisticated, large and demanding software to force users to buy new processors and upgrade their computers. Do you think this might be true? How does this suggestion correlate with the new Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office 2000? Do you think that Bill Gates' monopoly on Windows operating systems is very dangerous for the competition and price-makingprocess?
3)Ask anyone in the group who has a computer if Windows 98 is better than Windows 2000? Why and why
Text C: «INTRODUCTION TO THE WWW AND THE INTERNET»
Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail),discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called aWeb browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the localproviders have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.
All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.
Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.
World Wide Web — «Всемирная Паутина»to retrieve — извлекать
variety — разнообразие, спектрrecreation — развлечениеnetwork — сеть
to share — делить
humanities — гуманитарные науки
business transactions — коммерческие операции access— доступ
to browse — рассматривать, разглядыватьbrowser — браузер (программа поиска информации)to provide — обеспечивать(чем-либо)
provider — провайдер (компания, предоставляющая доступ к WWW через местные телефонные сети)broadcast live — передавать в прямом эфире site — страница, сайт
to link — соединятьhyperlink — гиперссылка
to compete — соревноваться
1)What is Internet used for?
2)Why so many activities such as e-mailand business transactions are possible through the Internet?
3)What is World Wide Web?
4)What is Web browser?
5)What does a user need to have an access to the WWW?
6)What are hyperlinks?
7)What resources are available on the WWW?
8)What are the basic recreational applications of WWW?
Exercise 9.8. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1)There are still not so many users of the Internet.
2)There is information on all sorts of topics on the Internet, including education and weather forecasts.
3)People can communicate through e-mailand chat programs only.
4)Internet is tens of thousands of networks which exchange the information in the same basic way.
5)You can access information available on the World Wide Web through the Web browser.
6)You need a computer (hardware) and a special program (software) to be a WWW user.
7)You move from site to site by clicking on a portion of text only.
8)Every time the user wants to move somewhere on the 'eh he/she needs to step by step enter links and addresses.
9)Films and pictures are not available on the Internet.
10)Radio and TV-broadcastingis a future of Internet. They're not available yet.
Exercise 9.9. Define the following using the vocabulary:
2)World Wide Web
Exercise 9.10. Find the equivalents:
1)Объем ресурсов и услуг, которые являются частью WWW, растет чрезвычайно быстро.
2)Каждая ссылка, выбранная вами представляет документ, графическое изображение, видеоклип или аудио файл где-тов Интернет.
3)Интернет может быть также использован для целей развлечения.
4)Вы получаете доступ к ресурсам Интернет через интерфейс или инструмент, который называется веб-браузер.
5)Вся эта деятельность возможна благодаря десяткам тысяч компьютерных сетей, подключенных к Интернет и обменивающихся информацией в одном режиме.
6)Пользователи общаются через электронную почту, дискуссионные группы, чэт-каналы(многоканальный разговор в реальном времени) и другие средства информационного обмена.
Exercise 9.11. Match the following:
1)You access the information through one interface or tool called a...
2)People connected to the WWW through the local... have access to a variety of information.
3)The user doesn't need to know where the site is, the... follows the...
4)In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the...
5)Each... provides a graphical interface.
6)Local... charge money for their services to access... resources.
Words to match with:
1) web browser, providers, link, WWW,
Questions for group discussion:
1) Some people think that Internet is very harmful, especially for young people, because it carries a lot of information about sex, drugs, violence and terrorism. Do you think that some kind of censorship is necessary on the WWW?
2) World famous authors and publishers say that the Internet violates their copyright because Web-program-mers put all kinds of books, pictures, music, films and programs free on the Internet and this reduces their sales and profits.
3) Has anyone in your group experience working on the Internet? Ask them 1) about the difficulties they had; 2) useful information retrieved; 3) fun they got? Why so few people have experience working on the Internet?
FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
William Henry Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, in 1955.
He is an American business executive, chairman and chief executive officer of the Microsoft Corporation. Gates was the founder of Microsoft in 1975 together with Paul Alien, his partner in computer language development. While attending Harvard in 1975, Gates together with Alien developed a version of the BASIC computer programming language for the first personal computer.
In the early 1980s. Gates led Microsoft's evolution from the developer of computer programming languages to a large computer software company. This transition began with the introduction of MS-DOS,the operating system for the new IBM Personal Computer in 1981. Gates also led Microsoft towards the introduction of application software such as the Microsoft Word processor.
Much of Gates' success is based on his ability to translate technical visions into market strategy. Although Gates has accumulated great wealth from his holdings of Microsoft stock, he has been known as a tough competitor who seems to value winning in a competitive environment over money. Gates still continues to work personally in product development at Microsoft.
Bronze and brass, the first alloys in the history of metallurgy, were probably obtained by man accidentally when melting mixed metal ores. Much later alloys of iron were obtained.
Steel was made in small quantities in early times until the mid-19thcentury when it was manufactured on a large scale in the iron and steel industry.
The commercial production of pure aluminium in about 1890 began a new range of alloys and among them duralumin, an alloy of about 94 per cent aluminium, with small quantities of copper, manganese, magnesium, and silicon. Most of aluminium alloys are both light and strong.
Nickel is often mixed with other metals for special purposes: permalloy is a nickel-ironalloy that is magnetically soft. The polarity of its magnetic field can be easily changed and it is used for transformer cores. Monel metals contain about two parts nickel to one part copper, plus other elements. They are stronger than nickel and extremely corrosionresistant. These properties make them useful in chemical production.
Electrum is a natural or artificial alloy of gold and silver containing 15-45per cent of silver. It was used in the ancient world for coinage.
Bismuth is frequently used as a part of alloys with low melting-points.Today alloys can be designed for particular applications with certain properties.
2. MANUFACTURING OF PLASTICS
The manufacture of plastic and plastic products involves procuring the raw materials, synthesizing the basic polymer, compounding the polymer into a material useful for fabrication, and moulding or shaping the plastic into its final form.
Originally, most plastics were made from resins derived from vegetable matter, such as cellulose (from cotton), oils (from seeds), starch derivatives, or coal. Casein (from milk) was among the nonvegetable materials used. Although the production of nylon was originally based on coal, air, and water, and nylon 11 is still based on oil from castor beans, most plastics today are derived from petrochemicals. These oil-basedraw materials are relatively widely available and inexpensive. However, because the world supply of oil is limited, other sources of raw materials, such as coal gasification, are being explored.
Synthesizing the Polymer
The first stage in manufacturing plastic is polymerization. As noted, the two basic polymerization methods are condensation and addition reactions. These methods may be carried out in various ways. In bulk polymerization, the pure monomer alone is polymerized, generally either in the gaseous or liquid phase, although a few solid-statepolymerizations are also used. In solution polymerization, an emulsion is formed and then coagulated. In interfacial polymerization, the monomers are dissolved in two immiscible liquids, and the polymerization occurs at the interface of the two liquids.
Chemical additives are often used in plastics to produce some desired characteristic. For instance, antioxidants protect a polymer from chemical degradation by oxygen or ozone; similarly, ultraviolet stabilizers protect against weathering. Plasticizers make a polymer more flexible, lubricants reduce problems with friction, and pigments add colour. Among other additives are flame retardants and antistatics.
Many plastics are manufactured as composites. This involves a system where reinforcing material (usually fibres made of glass or carbon) is added to a plastic resin matrix. Composites have strength and stability comparable to that of metals but generally with less weight. Plastic foams, which are composites of plastic and gas, offer bulk with low weight.
Shaping and Finishing
The techniques used for shaping and finishing plastics depend on three factors: time, temperature, and flow (also known as deformation). Many of the processes are cyclic in nature, although some fall into the categories of continuous or semicontinuous operation.
One of the most widely used operations is that of extrusion. An extruder is a device that pumps a plastic through a desired die or shape. Extrusion products, such as pipes, have a regularly shaped cross section. The extruder itself also serves as the means to carry out other operations, such as blow moulding and injection moulding. In extrusion blow moulding, the extruder fills the mould with a tube, which is then cut off and clamped to form a hollow shape called a parison. The hot, molten parison is then blown like a balloon and forced against the walls of the mould to form the desired shape. In injection moulding, one or more extruders are used with reciprocating screws that move forwards to inject the melt and then retract to take on new molten material to continue the process. In injection blow moulding, which is used in making bottles for carbonated drinks, the parison is first injection moulded and then reheated and blown.
In compression moulding, pressure forces the plastic into a given shape. Another process, transfer moulding, is a hybrid of injection and compression moulding: the molten plastic is forced by a ram into a mould. Other finishing processes include calendering, in which plastic sheets are formed, and sheet forming, in which the plastic sheets are formed into a desired shape. Some plastics, particularly those with very high temperature resistance, require special fabrication procedures. For example, polytetrafluoroethene (Teflon) has such a high melt viscosity that it is first pressed into shape and then sintered—exposedto extremely high temperatures that bond it into a cohesive mass without melting it. Some polyamides are produced by a similar process.
Plastics have an ever-wideningrange of uses in both the industrial and consumer sectors.
The packaging industry is a leading user of plastics. Much LDPE (low-densitypolyethene) is marketed in rolls ofclear-plasticwrap.High-densitypolyethene (HPDE) is used for some thicker plastic films, such as those used for plastic waste bags and containers. Other packaging plastics include polypropene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyvinylidene chloride. Polyvinylidene chloride is used primarily for its barrier properties, which can keep gases such as oxygen from passing into or out of a package. Similarly, polypropene is an effective barrier against water vapour. Polypropene is also often used in housewares and as a fibre for carpeting and rope.
The building industry is a major consumer of plastics, including many of the packaging plastics mentioned above. HDPE is used for pipes, as is PVC. PVC is also used in sheets for building materials and similar items. Many plastics are used to insulate cables and wires, and polystyrene in the form of foam serves as insulation for walls, roofs, and other areas. Other plastic products are roofing, door and window frames, mouldings, and hardware.
Many other industries, especially motor manufacturing, also depend on plastics. Tough engineering plastics are found in vehicle components like fuel lines, fuel pumps, and electronic devices. Plastics are also used for interior panelling, seats, and trim. Many car bodies are made of fibreglass-reinforcedplastic.
Among the other uses of plastic are housings for business machines, electronic devices, small appliances, and tools. Consumer goods range from sports equipment to luggage and toys
3. PRINCIPLES AND PROCESS OF POLYMERISATION IN PLASTICS PRODUCTION
Condensation polymerisation and addition polymerisation are the two main processes in plastics production. The manufacture of plastics depends upon the building of chains and networks during polymerisation.
A condensation polymer is formed by a synthesis that involves the gradual reaction of reactive molecules with one another, with the elimination of small molecules such as water. The reaction gradually slows down as polymers are built up.
An addition polymer forms chains by the linking of small identical units without elimination of small molecules. The most important concept in condensation polymers is that of «functionality», i.e., the number of reactive
groups in each molecule participating in the chain buildup. Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups, of which hydroxyl (-OH),acidic endings(-COOH),and amine endings(-NH)are the simplest.
Hydroxyl is characteristic of alcohol endings, combining with an acid ending to give an ester, the polymer being known as a polyester. Examples are polyethylene terephthalate obtained by reaction of ethylene glycol containing hydroxyl groups at each end and terephthalic acid containing two acidic groups and polycarbonate resins.
Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containingchemical compounds with a structure analogous to ethyl alcohol(C-HOH).Amines are various compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of hydrogen by one or more hydrocarbon radicals (molecular groups that act as a unit). Esters are compounds formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol or phenol with the elimination of water.
Bulk addition polymerization of pure monomers is mainly confined to styrene and methyl methacrylate The process is highly exothermic, or heat producing. The dissipation of heat (necessary to maintain chain length) is achieved in the case of styrene by intensive stirring of the viscous, partially polymerized mixture, which is then passed down a tower through zones of increasing temperature. Alternatively, polymerization may be completed in containers that are small enough to avoid an excessive temperature rise as a result of the heat released during polymerization.
Methyl methacrylate is also partially polymerized before being poured into molds consisting of between sheets of plate glass, to produce clear acrylic sheet.
Ethylene is polymerized in tubular reactors about 30 metres long and less than 25 millimetres in diameter at pressures of 600-3,000to give10-20percent conversion tolow-densitypolyethylene. Residual gas is recycled.
Polymerization of monomers in solution allows easy temperature control, but the molecular weight of polymers formed is reduced because of chain transfer reactions
Solvent removal from such a solution may also be very difficult. The process can be applied advantageously to vinyl acetate and acrylic esters.
Suspension polymerization producing beads of plastic is extensively applied to styrene, methyl methacrylate, vinyl chloride, and vinyl acetate. The monomer, in which the initiator or catalyst must be soluble, is maintained in droplet form suspended in water by agitation in the presence of a stabilizer such as gelatin, each droplet of monomer undergoing bulk polymerization.
In emulsion polymerization the monomer is dispersed in water by means of a surface-activeagent (a substance slightly soluble in water that reduces the surface tension of a liquid), its bulk aggregating into tiny particles held in suspension. The monomer enters the hydrocarbon part of thesurface-activemicelles and is polymerized there by awater-solublecatalyst.
This process is particularly useful for the preparation of very high molecular weight polymers.
Exposure of certain substances to X-rayor ultraviolet radiation initiates chain reactions that can be used for manufacture of such thermoplastics as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride.
Resins that cannot be softened by heating include the phenolics, furan resins, aminoplastics, alkyds, allyls, epoxy resins, polyurethanes, some polyesters, and silicones.
Phenolics or phenol-aldehydes
The important commercial phenolic resin Bakelite is based on phenol and formaldehyde. The two processes in general use are the one-stepprocess producing resol resins (the first stage in the formation of a phenolic resin) that are either liquid or brittle, soluble, fusible solids, from more than one molecule of formaldehyde per phenol molecule; and thetwo-stepprocess, using an excess of phenol to produce novolacs, resins that have no reactive methylol groups and must be mixed with an aldehyde to undergo further reaction.
Resol resins thermoset on heating and are used for adhesives. Novolacs require a further source of formaldehyde in the form of hexamethylenetetramine to produce molding powders. Both resins are run out from the reaction vessel, after removal of water by distillation, and ground up, then compounded on heated rolls with fillers that vary from wood flour to mica; for strength and heat resistance fibrous asbestos is used as a filler (hexamethylenetetramine is also added at this stage in the case of the two-stepresin). Final grinding produces the molding powders, which on further heat treatment will yield the typical thermoset resin.
Phenolic moldings are resistant to heat, chemicals, and moisture and are preferred for wet-dryapplications as in washing machines. Their stability to heat and low heat conductivity suit them for use in appliance parts, and their electrical insulation qualities qualify them for electric fittings such as switches, plugs, and distributor caps; resistance to hydraulic fluids has led to their use in automotive parts. All these applications have been made more economical by the development of injection molding and extrusion methods. Complex phenols are used in manufacture of brake linings.
Furfural is a five-memberedring compound (i.e., the basic molecule has a ring shape and contains five atoms) of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom, carrying the aldehyde group, — CHO; it reacts like formaldehyde with phenols in the presence of an acid catalyst to give a rigid polymer with high chemical resistance, used for coatings in industry. It can be prepared in semiliquid form with a low viscosity and remarkable penetrating power when applied to porous forms such as foundry sand cores or graphite blocks, being in this respect superior to other liquid resins.
Urea resins are made by the condensation in aqueous solution of formaldehyde and urea in the presence of ammonia as an alkaline catalyst, giving a colourless solution to which cellulose filler is added to yield a molding powder upon drying, which when heated in a mold gives a water-white(transparent) molding unless previously coloured by pigment.
The filler confers considerable strength, so that thin sections such as in cups and tumblers can be molded. Very large quantities of urea-formaldehyderesin are used in kitchen and bathroom hardware details, and electric appliance housings and fittings.
Melamine behaves in the same way as urea, but the product is more moisture resistant, harder and stronger, leading to wide use for plates and food containers. Melamine moldings are glossy and harder than any other plastic and retain a dust-freesurface. Solutions of the thermoplastic forms ofurea-formaldehyderesins are widely used as bonding agents for plywood andwood-fibreproducts.
Alkyds are polyesters, generally of phthalic acid (with two acid groups) and glycerol, a triol — i. e., an alcohol with three hydroxyl groups. The solid resins are molded at high speed under low pressure, cured quickly, and are used where insulating properties, strength, and dimensional stability over a wide range of voltage, frequency, temperature, and humidity are required, as in vacuum-tubebases and automotive ignition parts and withglass-fibrereinforcement for switch gear and housings for portable tools.
Polyesters of unsaturated alcohols
The resins known as DAP and DAIP, are crossliked allyl esters of phthalic and isophthalic acid, respectively. They are notable for maintaining rigidity and excellent electrical properties at temperatures up to 230 С, prорerties also manifested by allylic resin-impregnatedglass cloth, used in aircraft and missile parts. Other advantages are good storage life and absence of gas evolution during polymerization. The resin allyl diglycol carbonate, optically clear and colourless, is used for making cast objects; fully cured castings are more heat and abrasion resistant than other cast resins.
Epoxy resins have outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, dimensional stability, resistance to heat and chemicals, and adhesion to other materials. They are used for casting, encapsulation, protective coatings, and adhesives, and for reinforced moldings and laminates of the highest quality. Popular adhesives (epoxy glues) contain the resin components and the curing agent, usually an amine or an anhydride, in separate packages. The two are mixed just before use.
Formed by the reaction between diisocyanates and polyols (multihydroxy compounds), polyurethanes are among the most versatile of plastics, ranging from rigid to elastic forms. Their major use is for foams, with properties varying from good flexibility to high rigidity. Thermoplastic polyurethanes that can be extruded as sheet and film of extreme toughness can also be made.
Polyesters of unsaturated acids
Certain esters can be polymerized to resin and are used on a very large scale in glass-fibre-reinforcedplastics.
Unsaturated acid (usually maleic acid in the form of its anhydride) is first polymerized to a relatively short polymer chain by condensation with a dihydric alcohol such as propylene glycol, the chain length being determined by the relative quantities of the two ingredients The resulting condensation polymer is then diluted with a monomer such as styrene and an initiator for addition polymerization added. This mixture is quite stable at room temperature over a long period. Frequently, a silicone compound is added to promote adhesion to glass fibres, and wax to protect the surface from oxygen inhibition of polymerization. Glass-fibrematerials are impregnated with the syrup and polymerization is brought about by raising the temperature. Alternatively, the polymerization can be carried out at room temperature by addition of a polymerization accelerator to the syrup immediately before impregnation. After an induction period, which can be controlled, polymerization takes place, with rapid increase in temperature, to give aglass-fibre-reinforcedcross-linkedpolymer, which is effectively a thermoset type of plastic and very resistant to heat. The properties of the resin are frequently varied by replacing part of the unsaturated maleic anhydride by anhydrides of saturated acids.
Silicon, unlike carbon, does not form double bonds or long silicon chains. It does, however, form long chains with oxygen such as in siloxanes with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon; these result in a wide range of oils, greases, and rubbers.
Produced through a series of reactions involving replacement of certain atoms in the chain, silicon resins, or silicones, can be used for highand low-pressurelamination, withglass-fibrereinforcement and with mineral or shortglass-fibrefillers, or for molding powders. The outstanding characteristic of these products is high dielectric strength (that is, they are good insulators at high voltages) with low dissipation over a wide temperature and humidity range. Silicones are not distorted by heat up to 400 С. They are also physiologically inert and therefore valuable for prostheses (artificial body parts).
5. INDUSTRIAL PLASTICS:
RIGID AND FLEXIBLE FOAMS
Rigid polyurethane foams in sandwich forms have wide applications as building components. They are also the best insulants known today and so have wide application in refrigeration and in buildings, where they are applied in fitted slab form or are foamed into cavities at the building site. They can also be applied by spraying about six millimetres thickness with each pass of the spray gun. The ability to spray a foaming mixture through a single nozzle is a great advantage in application.
A very important use of rigid foam is for furniture parts to reproduce wood structures; these can be injection molded. Polyurethane foam can be screwed and nailed with a retention about equal to white pine lumber.
A major advance in the manufacture of sandwich structures is a new method of injection molding, in which a large machine is used to produce moldings up to 1.2 metres square. Moldings of great strength and any desired surface are obtained.
Flexible foams, usually polyurethane, are made in slab form up to 2.4 metres in width and as much as 1.5 metres high; these are then cut to required shapes or sizes or are molded. The molded foams may be hot molded.
This involves filling heated aluminum castings and gives a product having high resistance to compression, as for automobile seats; or they may be cold molded, a process used particularly for semi-flexiblefoams with high loadbearing properties. Used almost exclusively by the automobile industry for crash pads, armrests, and dashboard covers, the process involves machine mixing the ingredients and pouring them into aluminum molds lined with vinyl oracrylo-nitrile-butadiene-styreneskins, which become the cover material for the part.
Polystyrene foams are made in a wide range of densities, from expandable beads, either by extrusion through slot-shapedopenings to 40 times the original volume to form boards directly or by foaming in steam chests to form large billets. Using small beads in stainless steel molds, cups can be molded with thin sections.
Thin sheet for packaging can also be made by the tube extrusion technique. Though packaging is a major use for forms made in closed molds, the largest use is for building panels; they can be plastered directly.
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrenecan be expanded from pellets and is particularly suitable forwood-graineffects and for the production of heavy sections.
Expanded vinyls can be made from plastisols for flooring or textile linings by calendering with a blowing agent and laminating to a fabric base, and by injection molding for insulation and such articles as shoe soles. An improved material is now obtained from cross-linkedpolyvinyl chloride and competes with polyester in glass reinforced plastic.
Английский для технических вузов Агабекян
and thermodynamics. In the course of his investigations of the heat emitted in an electrical circuit, he formulated the law, now known as Joule's law of electric heating. This law states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor by electric current is proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current. Joule experimentally verified the law of conservation of energy in his study of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.
Joule determined the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy, or the mechanical equivalent of heat, using many independent methods. The unit of energy, called the joule, is named after him. It is equal to 1watt-second.Together with the physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin), Joule found that the temperature of a gas falls when it expands without doing any work. This phenomenon, which became known as theJoule-Thomsoneffect, lies in the operation of modern refrigeration andair-conditioningsystems.
AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS
I.Text A: «Automation», Text B: «Types of automation», Text C: «Robots In manufacturing»
II. Famous people of science and technology: James Watt.
Text A: «AUTOMATION»
Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. Thesequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is anassembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.
The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automaticdevices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better productionefficiency.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.
The feedback principle is used in all automatic-controlmechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is theflyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of thesteam engine. The commonhousehold thermostat is another example of a feedback device.
Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.
Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled bypunched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.
More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made possible the development of computer-aideddesign andcomputer-aidedmanufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates itsdimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.
Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.
Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.
Automation in Industry
Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.
Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.
The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.
Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.
Агабекян И.. Английский для технических вузов
Агабекян И.П.. Английский для технических ВУЗов
Притяжательный падеж существительных
Examples: The child's toys — The children's toys
The boy's books — The boys' books
Exercise 1.14. Use the Possessive Case of the Nouns:
Example: The poems of Lermontov. (Lermontov's poems).
1. The toy of their children. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The life of animals. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new tool of the workers. 8. The letter of Peter. 9. The car of my parents. 10 The room of my friend. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large.
Exercise 1.15. Translate into English.
1. Это семья моего друга. Отец моего друга — инженер. Мать моего друга — учитель. 2. Она взяла книги своего брата. 3. Дайте мне тетради ваших учеников. 4. Вы видели книгу нашего учителя? 5. Вчера дети моего брата ходили в кино. 6. Он показал мне письмо своей сестры. 7. Чья это сумка? — Это сумка Петра. 8. Чьи это словари? — Это словари студентов. 9. Принесите игрушки детей.
MY WORKING DAY
I. Гласные звуки [е], [æ].
II. Text A: «My working day»,
Text B: «Nick's usual working day».
III. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, порядок слов в английском предложении, типы вопросов.
Гласный звук [е]
При произнесении гласного [е] масса языка находится в передней части ротовой полости. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов. Губы слегка растянуты. Звук близок к русскому звуку [э] в словах эти, жесть.
Гласный звук [æ]
При произнесении звука [æ] губы несколько растянуты, нижняя челюсть сильно опущена, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, а средняя спинка языка немного выгибается вперед и кверху.
am — Ann — lamp
man — can — cat
sat — hat — bat
Pat — rat — cam
tanned — tent
man — men
pat — pet
tan — ten
pan — pen
bad — bed
land — lend
bat — bet
pet — net — red
let — met
ten — pen —• men — hen
Text a: «my working day»
Hi again... As you already know, I am a first-year student of the Technical Academy. My parents live in Sochi and I study in Rostov-on-Don so I need some housing. There are two opportunities for me: I can live in a dormitory (a students hostel), or to rent a flat (an apartment).
I decided to rent a flat. To make the rent smaller, I also decided to share my flat with another girl — Natasha Kozlova. She studies at the Academy, too, and she is my best friend now. I'll tell you more about her later.
Now, let me describe my usual working day. My classes begin at 8:30. So on week-days I have to get up at 7:15.1 don't have an alarm clock and usually my roommate wakes me up and my working day begins. I turn on the radio and do my morning exercises while Natasha takes a shower. I don't take a bath in the morning because I don't have enough time for it. I take a cool shower (that's when I completely wake up), brush my teeth. After that I go back to our room and get dressed. I brush my hair and put on a light make-up. Then we have breakfast. Natasha makes breakfast every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. I have to serve breakfast on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. I love to listen to the latest news on the radio while I am eating and Natasha prefers light music.
We leave the house at ten minutes past eight and walk to the nearest bus-stop. We live rather far from the Academy and it usually takes us about a quarter of an hour to get there by bus. Sometimes when the weather is fine and we have enough time we walk to the Academy. It is very healthy to walk much.
The classes begin at 8:30 in the morning and they end at 2:00 p.m. We have lectures in different subjects. As a rule we have three or four classes a day. Sometimes it is very hard to wait till they end.
Usually I don't miss my classes because I want to pass my exams successfully. But sometimes I do, especially when the weather is fine and the classes are boring.
At 11:50 we have lunch. That's my favourite time. That is the time to share the latest news and to gossip. My friends and I prefer not to go to the canteen and we often have lunch in a small cafe not too far from the Academy. At 12:30 we have to be back to our classes. During the working day we also have several short breaks that last for ten minutes.
Occasionally I have to stay at the Academy till 5 or even 6 o'clock in the evening because I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on week-days. So by the end of the week I get very tired.
We come home at about 7 o'clock in the evening. We eat supper together and share the latest news.
After supper we wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old comedies and Natasha likes serials or films about travelling. Sometimes Natasha and I go for a walk in the park or visit our friends.
At about eleven at night I go to bed. I like to read something before going to bed and Natasha likes to listen to some music. Sometimes I fall asleep while I am reading and Natasha gets up and switches off the light and says — Good night!
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Direct-current (DC) Generators , unit 4, vocabulary.
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